Battery – Make Electronic Objects Mobile
A battery is a device that stores chemical energy and is available in an electric form. The batteries contain a series of electrochemical devices that contains one or more fuel cells, galvanic cells and flow cells. This electric battery is an interconnected array of one or more than one voltaic cells that are used in the cars, in torches, laptops, digital watches and almost every electronic goods that we use in our daily life. Series of battery cells The cells in the battery are connected either in parallel, in series or in both combinations. While the parallel combination of cells has the same voltage power as a single cell, it can supply a higher current than a single cell can. The parallel arrangements, however, suffer from a recurrent problem.
If one cell discharges faster than its neighbor cell, then current will flow from the full cell to the empty cell, thereby wasting a lot of power and causing excess of overheating. Another marked disadvantage is if one of the cells gets short-circuited due to an internal fault, then its neighbor will be forced to discharge its maximum current into the faulty cell, thereby leading to sudden explosion. The capacity of a battery to store charge is often expressed in ampere hours [1 A.h = 3600 coulombs]. If the battery can provide one ampere [1A] of current for completely one hour then it is said to have a real-world capacity of 1 A.
Types of batteries There are some common battery types that are used in everyday life. The different types include rechargeable and disposable batteries, homemade cells, and traction batteries and flow batteries. Disposable batteries Also called primary cells are intended to use only once until the chemical changed that induce electrical current supply are complete and the battery is then discarded. They are commonly used in smaller and portable objects with low current drain. They are usually contained in light drain and heavy drain appliances, digital cameras, watches, computer clocks, and hearing aids. Rechargeable batteries These are secondary cells that can be recharged after they have been drained. This is done by conveniently applying externally supplied electrical current that reverses the chemical reactions that usually occur in use. It is used in appliances like alarm systems, vehicles, vacuum tube radio sets, absorbed glass mats etc. Traction batteries These batteries are designed to provide power to move vehicles like electric cars and tow motors.
A peculiar characteristic of traction batteries is the electrolytes in the batteries are gelled. Flow batteries They are a special class of battery that stores additional quantities of electrolyte outside the main power cell of the battery and are circulated throughout by pumps or through movement. They have a high capacity and are specially used in the marine appliances. So whether it’s your car, PC, laptop cell phone or MP3 player, the batteries are almost everywhere to make you electrically mobile.
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